4. Applications

A follow-up publication of Optik_1 (see Home Page) and Optik_2 (see Home Page) was announced in Optik_2 and published (January 2023) by the Elsevier scientific Journal "Results in Optics" (RIO).

[RIO_1] Etienne Brauns, "On the concept and potential applications of a photons based device, measuring the velocity vector of an object, moving at high speed in space", Results in Optics, 10 (2023) 100349,

You can download a "Sign Post" text in pdf format describing the goal of the website, the contents of the multiple downloadable publications (including their download links) by clicking the following link:

You can also download at the Home page my publications :

E. Brauns, A shattered Equivalence Principle in Physics and a future History of multiple Paradigm Big Bangs in "exact" science ?book, 450 pages, the following separate publications were extracted from the website and this book:

D2) E. Brauns, "On multiple anomalies and inconsistencies regarding the description of light phenomena in contemporary science.", 9 pages / D3) E. Brauns, "On a massive anomaly through a straightforward laser experiment falsifying the equivalence principle for light.", 6 pages / D4) E. Brauns, "On the flawed Michelson and Morley experiment null-result paradigm.", 21 pages / D5) E. Brauns, "On a flawed Lorentz contraction paradigm caused by an erroneous Michelson-Morley model and null-result.", 11 pages / D6) E. Brauns, "On the inconclusiveness of the results from the Eddington 1919 solar eclipse mission to measure the bending of light.", 22 pages / D7) E. Brauns, "On The Mercury perihelion precession: a critique on the anomaly and a plausible additional effect of the sun.", 23 pages / D8) E. Brauns, "On the totally flawed contemporary light clock paradigm and on Paul Langevin's twin paradox being to the point", 18 pages / D9) E. Brauns, "On a device, measuring in real space the real velocity of an object and on Mach's flawed relativity thought experiment ", 23 pages / D10) E. Brauns, "On Einstein's relativity of simultaneity thought experiment as a flawed contemporary paradigm ", 17 pages

4.1 Real Velocity Measuring Device (RVMD)

From the preceding sections it is thus clear that a concept is feasible enabling the measurement of real velocity. This is already described in detail in a patent text but reviewed here in order to point to the schematics of eventual set-ups. In the patent text a concept is introduced which uses an additional mirror or eventually two parallel mirrors to reflect the laser photons in order to increase the trajectory of the photons and thus increase the shift of the laser dot at a detector. However, only the concept without the use of a reflection of a mirror (or the use of multiple reflections by two parallel mirrors) is discussed here. Therefore, the drawing #6 from the patent text is introduced here and the measuring device without any mirror is schematically illustrated in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Basic set-up to measure real velocity

A tube-like container under vacuum holds a laser source and a sensor. The laser source is geometrically mounted perfectly in a way that the laser points exactly in a perpendicular direction towards the sensor. The sensor’s  plane is perfectly perpendicular to the y-axis. The sensor allows to locate the arriving laser pulse and therefore also the signal shift which is caused by the real velocity of the measuring device.

It should be noted that : 
    - if the device travels in the right-handed direction at a specific velocity, the signal shift at the sensor is at the left-handed side of the sensor
    - if the device travels in the left-handed direction at a specific velocity, the signal shift at the sensor is at the right-handed side of the sensor
    - it is therefore clear that, when the abscissa position (x-value) of arrival of the photons at the sensor is exactly the same as the abscissa position (x-value) of photons departures from the laser source, the only possibility is that the measuring device must be at perfect rest in the x-direction, thus having a real velocity equal to zero (simply no velocity to the left nor to the right which can only be equal to perfect rest in the x-direction). The device thus enables the measurement of real velocity in one direction.

When having a three-dimensional set-up, as illustrated schematically in Figure 13, with three of such tube-shaped devices (each one according to Figure 12) perpendicular to one another, a full three-dimensional measurement system is obtained. Such a set-up thus would enable to measure all real velocity vector components vx, vy and vz (thus also the trajectory direction) in space. If the signal shifts for all three measuring devices would be zero, the real velocity vector components vx, vy and vz thus would also be zero and this would indicate that the device is at perfect rest in real space in all directions.

Figure 13: Three dimensional set-up to measure all real velocity vector components

A vector analysis of a velocity vector (v) in space can be considered, as illustrated in Figure 14 and Figure 15.

Figure 14: Three dimensional vector analysis

In the three dimensional analysis in Figure 14, a velocity v shows three vector components vx, vy and vz. Only the two-dimensional case (x,y) will be discussed here since the reasoning for a three-dimensional case including (x,z) and (y,z)  is analogous.

Figure 15: Two dimensional case (x,y) showing also a velocity component in the y-direction

Up to now, the discussion was restricted to the case (x,y) where only the vx value differs from zero. When having the situation as depicted in Figure 15 with a velocity vector vxy in the plane (x,y), the velocity measuring device also moves in the y-direction. From the fact that a photon being launched in the direction perpendicular to the x-axis is locked to real  space in the launch trajectory direction perpendicular to the x-axis it is clear that the measurement of vx is not influenced by the vy component of the velocity vector : the (x,y) based signal shift (point of arrival of the photon) in the device, as illustrated in Figure 12 but now also moving in the y-direction, and resulting from vx will remain the same for whatever value of vy. It is not the intention of this website to make the complete analysis regarding all signal shift aspects within the three dimensional measuring set-up but the basics of the approach should be clear from these considerations.

It thus can be concluded here that real velocity indeed can be measured on the basis of the trajectory of photons in real space since those photons are "locked" to real space and thus can be used as a "witness". The device can be mounted on a space ship or used on our planet to measure real velocity without the need of an independent second material object "at rest" as a reference. In a space ship the RVMD would enable to read the real velocity, even in a confined compartment without any visual or whatever other contact with a second material object in space considered "at rest". A measuring concept and device is therefore possible which fully counters the paradigms of Galileo, Mach and others, which proclaim the non-existence of real (Newton's "absolute") velocity. 

4.2 Determining an object’s real position from the perceived position by using the RVMD

(You can also read/download my short publication about this application at ResearchGate: )

It is common knowledge that the sun’s image arrives only on earth after 480 seconds since photons need that time to travel the distance between our planet and the sun. This means that an observer on earth perceives the sun in a location which happened already 480 seconds in the past and therefore the sun’s actual real position is in fact not observed but a position in the past. A sunset, when being defined in a geometrical way as the sun’s exact position disappearing behind the earth’s horizon as a result of the rotation of the earth, obviously happened in reality 8 minutes ago while the perceptible image as observed by an observer is linked to observed sunrays corresponding to an 8 minutes old image of the sun’s position ! 

What about the information delaying effect from the extremely high but still finite speed of light on earth itself ? It is indeed clear for an observer Obs2 on earth that the finite value of the speed of light results in a small but definite travelling time from a laser source to a wall. In addition, as illustrated in preceding sections on this website, the effect of the earth’s high velocity in space on the position of the location of the location of arrival  of a photon was demonstrated to be significant. The same time interval effect is of course also true when an observer on earth observes a stationary object on earth at a given distance. The light signal coming from the object as the information carrier of the object’s position also needs a definite travelling time before reaching the observer. The incoming information which the observer receives is consequently also delayed according to this travelling time of the light. This may seem totally negligible at a first glance (and even not accounted for, up to now in science) but this is certainly not the case. Since any observer travels through space on our planet at a very high velocity (the earth’s orbit velocity), the delayed incoming information at the eye of the observer of the light signal from the observed stationary (relative to the observer) object in fact causes a significant, thus NOT negligible, effect with respect to the interpretation of the object’s real location.

For now, the exact value of the real velocity of the earth in space obviously is not known since the sun’s complete planet system needs to be considered to also move in space, moreover within our moving galaxy. The real velocity could be measured with the RVMD as mentioned in section 4.1 but, in addition, the very complicated three dimensional situation of the observer on our globe also needs a profound mathematical analysis. Evidently, an accurate analysis would require a time demanding project and a team of specialists. As a result, only an oversimplified representation is pictured in Figure 17 showing an observer and an object, both stationary on “earth”. It is also assumed here for now that the orbit velocity of about 30000 meter per second of the earth, as mentioned in the literature, corresponds to its real velocity in space. Of course this should only be accepted here for demonstration reasons since in reality a three dimensional RVMD should be applied at the location of the observer. The “earth” in this example is therefore restricted to two dimensions, rotating in a 24 h mode in counter clockwise mode. The “earth” shows a real velocity of 30 000 m/sec in the x-direction in this oversimplified example. Corresponding to time intervals of 6 hours, four succeeding positions of the observer (Obs2) and the object (Obj) are drawn. In this example the observer and the object are stationary on earth while the distance between the observer and the object is 10 000 m.

Figure 17: Simplified representation of a surveying action of an object by an observer on "earth"

In the positions Obs2_B/Obj_B, the observer and the object move simultaneously and in parallel in the positive x-direction. It clear that this resembles to the situation of the RVMD. A light signal departs from the object towards the observer, in the y-direction. This situation is somewhat more complicated since it could be argued that a hypothetical single photon travelling perfectly in the y-direction could not be perceived by the observer since the observer also moves in the x-direction during the photon’s travelling time from the object to the observer. However, in real life, an object being illuminated by e.g. the sunlight during daytime, is reflecting/scattering photons from each object’s surface point in all possible directions. Therefore it is clear that the photons which are actually visually captured by the observer’s eye are those photons which were send towards the observer at a particular (small) angle, a little off the y-direction. The trajectory could be analysed in detail with the implementation of trigonometric formulas in order to exactly calculate that very small off-angle (trajectory in real space) and the marginally increased travelling distance and travelling time of the light signal towards the observer. For very large distances such exercise could be made but in this case, with the “small” distance of 10000 m between object and observer, it is assumed that the travelling time can be approximated well by the division of the distance of 10000 m by the speed of light, resulting in a travelling time of 3.335 x 10-5 sec.

It can then be concluded that the difference between the object’s perceptible and real position is about 1 m since during the travelling time of 3.335 x 10-5 sec, the object has shifted that distance of 1 m in real space as a result of the high speed of our planet in space. The perceptible position of the object is thus estimated to be 1 m to the observer’s left (thus the real position is  “+ 1 m” when compared to the perceived position). The estimate thus proves that it is very important in surveying applications, where light or a laser beam is used, to take into account the effect of the high velocity of our planet in space on the registered location of an object under survey. For an object at distances of 1000 m and 100 m these effects are estimated to be respectively 10 cm and 1 cm, to the left of the observer. 

For positions Obs2_D/Obj_D the difference between the object’s perceptible and real position is also about 1 m but in that case the perceptible position of the object is then 1 m further to the observer’s right (thus the real position is  “- 1 m”). In the case of the positions Obs2_A/Obj_A and Obs2_C/Obj_C the difference between the object’s perceptible and real position in the example is estimated to be null to the left/righthand of the observer.

The situation in positions Obs2_B and Obs2_D involves a very small angular shift of 0.006° (which is about 0° 0’ 22”) which is not noticeable to the humans eye. This angular shift is distant independent, in a way that a human’s visual perception is unable to detect the differences (luckely the speed of light is that high ...). However, highly accurate measurement devices would detect the effect and this could thus be important in a number of very high accuracy positioning (surveying) applications. This could be done by the assistance of a three dimensional RVMD and by the calculation, through adequate transformation equations, of the real coordinates from the perceptible coordinates of the observed object. The extrapolation of the oversimplified one-dimensional based examples towards the real three-dimensional situation of the earth of course needs a much more complex analysis by experts in order to set up those correct transformation equations. In addition, the value of the real velocity needs to be measured first also. However, the example shows the basis of the approach which is needed for that matter.

Such effects thus cannot be neglected in high accuracy surveying applications such as large buildings or other large constructions (e.g. large span bridges when working simultaneously from both construction sides towards the middle of the construction). In a building application's arbitrary example such as e.g. the Petronas twin towers in Kuala Lumpur with a height of about 500 m, a distance or height of 100 m involves a measuring device (surveying ; theodolite) of which the reading then can show an “error” of -10 mm to + 10 mm with respect to the REAL position of the observed material object when compared to the PERCEIVED one. Moreover, such error is depending (alternating) from the rotational position of our planet (time instant of the measurement in a 24 h interval) and direction (east, west, north, south). Up to now, geometrical measurements do not consider these error effects although they are extremely relevant and thus should be accounted for.

It is recommended to the Surveying Community to reproduce the laser experiment as discussed (see Figure 2) themselves and then come to the needed conclusions in that respect.  Evidently a theodolite showing an accuracy of 1 arcsec should also be able to detect the effect by simply measuring the coordinates of a fixed reference point at a wall (preferably in a temperature conditioned research room) while using a fixed theodolite at a distance of e.g. 10 m and then observe the coordinate changes of the fixed point at the wall at the level of the registered arcsec value over a period of 24 hour by e.g. a data acquisition each 15 minutes. The Lissajous effect shown in Figure 2 should then also be reflected in those theodolite measurement results and then will also confirm our findings. The theodolite will indeed register during the 24 hour test  a change in the apparent coordinates of the fixed reference point (at the arcsec level). The change is caused by the fact that the photons being send from the reference point need time to arrive at the theodolite and thus are from the past. Since the angle between

- the direction defined by the theodolite and the reference point
- the velocity vector of our planet

changes in the same way, as in the laser example in Figure 2, it is clear that the change of the order of 20 arcsec should also be detected in the theodolite results. Evidently the test needs to be performed properly which e.g. requires a stable floor for the theodolite tripod, a sufficiently long stabilizing settling period of the theodolite tripod to rule out mechanical effects (creep), probably a computerized data acquisition in order not to disturb the tripod manually after the stabilizing period, etc.

(The next paragraph was added on November 8, 2011)
Note: at the end of this paragraph you can download a critique on the calculation approach as made by Ronald van Elburg in trying to explain the neutrino anomaly being detected an reported on by the CERN Opera research team. The approach by van Elburg or any other calculation method for that matter which are based on reference frames, in the case that they are known to move in real space, will be erroneous when applying the contemporary paradigms. A reference frame on our planet's surface or a reference frame linked to a satellite indeed both move at a very high speed in real space since our planet moves at its orbit velocity in real space (estimated to be 30000 m/sec). It is shown on this website and also in the downloadable publications at this website that a photon's (or for that matter other "electromagnetic" information carriers) past location in real space simply cannot be represented correctly  in such a moving reference frame. It is clear that  Ronald van Elburg introduces such reference frames (as is classic within contemporary physics) since he writes at  : "The main point of the paper is about the OPERA experiment and not about GPS. If the hypothesis is wrong it should be easy for the OPERA team to prove it wrong. However, the whole concept of synchronization of clocks makes it hard to determine in which reference frame the OPERA experiment was set. I propose the experiment was set in the satellite reference frame and has been treated (at least partially) as if it were set in the CERN-Gran Sasso reference frame." Any attempt to explain the CERN Opera anomaly without considering the views as presented on this website thus will be erroneous since the fundaments (premises) in contemporary physics, on which the calculation method is based, do not save the real phenomena in real space and thus the calculation will be flawed. In an analog way e.g. the Michelson and Morley experiment is also based on a wrong graphical representation of photon phenomena and is thus also flawed, as explained on this website. The critique on the calculation approach as made by e.g. Ronald van Elburg was also sent by E-mail to a considerable number of the CERN Opera researchers and you can download the document here : Critique on van Elburg calculations regarding the OPERA neutrino anomaly